First, may as well just cover the terms, so I can copy and paste later. :D
Solarian Government Structure
軍務庁 － （ぐんむちょう） Ministry of Military Affairs
財務庁 － （ざいむちょう） Financial Ministry
教務庁 － （きょうむちょう） Ministry of Education
喋務庁 － （ちょうむちょう） Communications Agency
壮務庁 － （そうむちょう） Ministry of Internal Affairs
外務庁 － （がいむちょう） Ministry of Foreign Affairs
設務庁 － （せつむちょう） Ministry of Urban Development
廠務庁 － （しょうむちょう） Ministry for Social Welfare
産務庁 － （さんむちょう） Production and Trade Bureau
(In some cases I used examples from the current Japanese government, and in others I went with a different word - like agency, instead of ministry, which share a kanji - for the sake of variety. I don't have the links handy, but there are websites for the various Japanese ministries, and one in particular that outlines not only government structure, but what they all do. I need to find that again.)
天帝カイン － （てんていかいん） Holy Emperor Cain
ガゼル法院 － （がぜるほういん） Gazel Ministry
護民監 － （ごみんかん） Minister of National Security*
守護天使 － （しゅごてんし） Guardian Angels
天務庁 － （てんむちょう） Central Command**
教会 － （きょうかい） Church***
上層部 － （じょうそうぶ） Upper Class citizens
* I had a hard time with this term, and can't find any real-world equivilent. I chose '(minister of) national security' because the kanji imply it (護： protection; 民： people, citizens).
** This term doesn't have a direct translation either - perhaps "heavenly ministry," but that's kind of stupid. However, in Solaris, several NPCs mention "Central Command" as the authority in Etrenank, so I'm assuming 'tenmuchou' is the term they translated as such. The Memorial Album doesn't cover NPC conversations, or I'd look.
*** This was translated as 'Ethos' in our version of the game, perhaps to avoid people making certain parallels. They may as well have left it. We know when we're looking at a Catholic-style church, come on. :P
Modern Solarian Social Structure
** These are only partial translations, or summaries of the explanations. I skipped these in favor of the government bureaus, because I figured these were self-explanatory. I think. Actually, I don't remember what I was thinking two years ago, so. Deal. (I'll do a better job later, because I'm still kind of curious.)
天帝カイン // Holy Emperor Cain
Executive branch, possesses absolute power in theory. Puppet of Krelian and Miang.
ガゼル法院 // Gazel Ministry
Cain's governing body. The true authority.
護民監 // Minister of National Defense
Krelian's office. Oversees public safety.
守護天使 // Guardian Angels
Servants of the empire, above Gebler and the Ethos in rank and importance.
天務庁 // Central Command
(I don't have a translation for this one, but it appears to be saying this organization puts Cain's will into action, or at least runs Jugend. Freaking kanji. I don't remember those. :P :P)
教会 // The Ethos Organization
Basically, the entire surface network under Solaris's power. Covers both Gebler and Ethos operations.
上層部 // First-class Citizens
These didn't rate their own box, but the term refers to all upper-class citizens in Solaris (and maybe in this case, just the Gazel in general).
Structure of the Solarian Government
(These are basically direct translations. I would have to go over them again with the Japanese text to make sure of their accuracy, but I think the meaning gets across. These aren't exactly brain teasers, anyway. Just what do you think a Ministry of Education would do?)
軍務庁 // Ministry of Military Affairs
Solaris's military administration. During an earlier war its numbers were decimated, and its present power is almost non-existent.
財務庁 // Ministry of Finance
Handles the minting and circulation of Solarian currency, the bank, and taxation.
教務庁 // Ministry of Education
Oversees the department of education and controls access to the research facility. Also controls meteorology, aerial development, and part of the industrial sector.
喋務庁 // Communications Agency
Officially controls all news and information services, but the government has taken over administration of those services.
壮務庁 // Ministry of Internal Affairs
(Nothing at the moment. Not that it's a big mystery.)
外務庁 // Ministry of Foreign Affairs
This organization is meant to handle foreign relations, but since Gebler and the Ethos were established on the surface for that purpose, this office is mostly inactive.
設務庁 // Ministry of Urban Development
Manages funds for Solarian companies that handle housing, water works, business, and transportation.
廠務庁 // Ministry of Public Health and Safety
Oversees public health and medicine. It's the only source for medical services in Solaris, and is under the supervision of Krelian's office. (OH GOD NO---)
産務庁 // Ministry of Commerce
The second foundation of Solarian industry and overseer of commercial distribution. Created to restore Urban Development after the Great War, and currently has great influence. (Uhhh... in other words, it was founded after the war to boost the economy and promote consumerism and expansion?)
What a pain. I know I typed this before somewhere, but I couldn't find it. ;_;
That bit about Aveh, Solaris, and other random bits will have to wait until next time, I guess. I'm going to waste my time sorting Xenogears and Xenosaga posts into new tags, because 'xeno' is getting cluttered.
Oh, and - Roni Fatima. Nothing surprising here.