Healing Items - HP
戦士の秘薬 (せんしのひやく) - "Warrior's Nostrum," which restores 300 HP to one character.
薬士の秘薬 (やくしのひやく） - "Healer's Nostrum," although I'm partial to the word "apothacary." Couldn't find a definition. Restores 1500 HP to one ally.
魔女の秘薬 （まじょのひやく） - "Witch's Nostrum," which restores 5000 HP for one party member.
賢者の秘薬 （けんじゃのひやく） - "Sage's Nostrum," a term I recall from Vagrant Story. XD Completely restores the HP of one party member.
小人の霊薬 (こびとのれいやく) - "Dwarven Medicine," which restores 300 HP for the entire party. Easy to get, though it's a little expensive at first.
妖精の霊薬 (ようせいのれいやく) - essentially "Elven Medicine," although "Elven Miracle" might work better. The dictionary gave me "miracle drug" for reiyaku, and my mind isn't parsing well enough to come up with a better approximation. You could even use a slightly different terminology and call it "Sylvan Medicine," although since there's actually a Sylvan Institute here in the US, that might be bad. :P 1500 HP recovery for the entire party.
精霊の霊薬 (せいれいのれいやく) - why I'd want medicine from a spirit-- well. Recovers 5000 HP for the entire party. I don't know if there're any nuances to this, so I read it as "Spirit's Medicine," or in this case "Medicine of the Spirit" could actually work for me.
女神の霊薬 （めがみのれいやく） - "Goddess's Medicine,"which restores all HP for the entire party. Holy gods, when am I going to find this, and how much money will I have to bleed out to get it?
Healing Items - Status
(Most are usable in battle.)
エリクサー - Elixir. Negates all negative status ailments.
プライムエリクサー- Prime Elixir. Negates all status ailments and restores 50% of the character's HP.
ノーブルエリクサー - Noble Elixir. Cures all status ailments and restores 99% of the character's HP.
ユニオンプラム - Union Plume. Revives fallen characters.
聖水 - Holy Water. Negates the Curse (呪い) ailment.
聖杯 (せいはい) - Holy Grail. Negates the Curse ailment. The additional characteristic is something I don't understand; I think once you use this the effect is permanent for the battle. Original description: "呪いを回復（無限に使用可能）". There are items like that, hence my guess. I read this with my ghetto skills as a note that it has infinite possible uses. ^^
イズンの林檎 (いずんのりんご) - Idun's Apple. Cures the Weakness (衰弱) ailment. (Gods, I hate that one. >_>)
やわらかな石 (やわらかないし) - Soft Stone. (Uh. 'Gentle' doesn't really fix the problem.) Cures the Weakness (衰弱) ailment, plus the same description problem I have with the Holy Grail item.
死灰 （しかい） - "Lifeless Ash" which... huh. The dictionary spit out a phrase when I looked it up: 'as lifeless as cold ash," which doesn't help. It's supposed to cure poison (毒), but cannot be used in battle.
骨付き肉 （ほねつきにく） - bony meat? Ahahah. It recovers a tiny bit of HP, but you're supposed to use this item (and items like it) to feed stray animals for items.
金銀花の露 (きんぎんはなのつゆ) - Gold and Silver Flower Dew, which negates the poison (毒) status effect; can be used during battle.
方位石 (ほういいし) - Directional Stone. I have no idea what this does - haven't used it in battle, and the description makes no sense to me (転送を回復).
星読みの石版 (せいよみのせきばん) - Sacred Lithograph is what I settled on for now. A powered up version of the above item. (Edit: no, wait wait-- star lithograph, duh. I had sei in my head and started thinking holy, geez. There's a better way to say this, but I don't care right now. :P)
秩序の原理 (ちつじょのげんり) ーRegularity Principle sounds kind of neat. >_> Cures Confusion (混乱).
ブラギの詩篇 (ぶらぎのしへん) - Bragi's Psalm. Cures Silence (沈黙).
雪解け水 (ゆきどけみず) - Melting Snow. Cures the Frozen (凍結) status ailment.
真珠草 (しんじゅくさ) - Pearl Grass. Cures Paralysis (麻痺).
コカトリスの卵 (こかとりすのたまご) - Cocktrice Egg. Cures Stone (石化).
Battle Items - Support
耐炎の護符 - Flame-resistant Talisman (Let me think about this. :P) Can be used once to raise defense to this element.
耐寒の護符 - Cold-resistant Talisman.
砕土の護符 - Broken Earth Talisman.
避雷の護符 - Lightning Talisman.
スペクタクルズ - Spectacles. Allows you to see an enemy's abilities and weaknesses.
幻視の珠 (げんしのしゅ) - Gem of Visualization (unsure about this). Advanced version of the Spectacles.
ダブルサーチ - Double Search. Experience and OTH (money) are doubled for that battle.
神速の書 (しんそくのしょ) - Godspeed Tome. Allows you to run from battle.
Battle Items - Offensive
フレアジェム - Flare Gem. Causes fire damage.
サンダージェム - Thunder Gem. Causes lightning damage.
ホーリィクリスタル - Holy Crystal. ... a, er, dark crystal that... fuck, I don't know. Original: 聖属性の範囲攻撃を行う魔水晶 - have at it. If 魔水晶 is being modified by the first part, wtf, it should mean something like ' a dark crystal that affects the range of holy attribute attacks'... I guess. Only I've never used this, so I have no idea. :P
(There are a ton of items in this category for every element. Gems are the weaker variety I think, and Crystals are stronger. Most cause some kind of damage, but others cause status ailments. If I could only find one that would cause Weakness. ^^)
海鮮肉 (かいせんにく) - Fresh Seafood? The description says it's an unidentifiable meat, and I think I must be misreading the part about the fresh ocean wish. :P :P
獣肉 (じゅうにく) - Animal Flesh. Bits of meat dripping with blood. This, as well as the last, is supposed to be fed to different animals to obtain special items, or sold to item shops as materials for new items.
こうもりの羽 (こもりのはね) - A feather from a huge bird.
琥珀 (こはく) - amber. (:D :D :D) Just a beautiful piece of amber, I guess. With trading value.
壊れたアミュレット (こわれたアミュレット) - Broken Amulet. The description says it's a broken amulet that someone must have put their hope into. (It's SO like VP to give a description like that for something.)
祭祀書 (さいししょ) - Ritual Book. A book used in ancient religious ceremonies. After that I think it says that the book's content is nonsense. :P
鉄鉱石 (てっこうせき) - Iron Ore, described as "raw iron" (no, really?).
骨クズ (ほねのくず) - fragment of a decomposing bone that has been crystallized. No idea what 'kuzu' is though.
ボルト酒 (ぼるどさけ) - Bold Sake. Strong alcoholic wine.
淀んだ水 (よどんだみず) -Stagnant Water. Muddy, blue-green water; cannot possibly be imbibed by humans.
大陸西部の地図 (たいりくせいぶのちず) - Map of the Continental West. A map of the Villnore region of Midgard.
大陸東部の地図 (たいりくとうぶのちず) - Map of the Continental East. A map of the Crell Monferaigne region of Midgard.
鉱山の鍵 (こうざんのかぎ) - Mine Key. Key that opens various areas of the Turgen Mine.
時渡りの神器 (じわたりのしんぎ) - I don't know. Crossing time and a sacred vessel, how can I put that together? ^^ I'm drawing a blank.
翠の封陣器 - Emerald Sealing Vessel (taking a bit of liberty there, as the kanji only came up for me separately, and are meaningless that way). The literal translation makes no sense to me. I think this is a vessel for sealing stones - there are items you get later in the game that give you extra slots.
名称 (めいしょう) - literally "name." Instructions or commentary. I don't remember this item, but whatever.
Geez, that took forever. But at least now I'll have a reference if I forget something. I never remember all of the items for the various status effects, so I end up scrambling for dictionaries at the worst times. ^^